Pikulina, P., I. Mironova, E. Rozanov and A. Karagodin, September 2017 Solar Flares Effect on the Middle Atmosphere, Remote Sens., 14, 2560, 2022. doi:10.3390/rs14112560.


This paper examines the response of the upper atmosphere to increased radiation following exceptional solar activity in September 2017. The active region of the Sun AR2673 has caused intense solar-terrestrial disturbance. This active region has generated several powerful X-class solar flares. The strongest outburst of the 24th solar activity cycle X9.3 occurred on 6 September 2017. The second powerful solar flare X8.2 occurred on 10 September 2017. Both flares caused an increase of the solar irradiance in extreme ultraviolet and soft X-ray spectral regions, and Ly-α line. The empirical FISM2 model was used to obtain data on the radiation fluxes from solar flares. The HAMMONIA chemistry–climate model was used to analyse the effect of radiation on the neutral atmosphere. This work presents the results of the effect of solar flares on the chemical composition and ozone of the upper and middle atmosphere